Turbo refers to the word Turbine; which is the wheel that is spinned by the exhaust. The exhaust rotates an axle that connects the turbine housing with the compressor housing. In the compressor house, cold air is sucked in and compressed. Typically an intercooler is placed between the compressed (charged) air and the actual intake manifold, because a turbocharger gets very hot from the exhaust. The system is more efficient and suffers less from lag if the turbine housing is close to the exhaust manifold. Sometimes more than one turbo is installed (twin turbo or quad turbo), sometimes the turbo is more efficiently using the energy from the exhaust by carefully splitting the exhaust from each cylinder to rule out backpressure (twin scroll ).
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